A Record of Important Declarations and Statements during WW2 in 1939.
Tuesday October 17th 1939
Statement issued by the War Office through the Ministry of Information:
German propaganda has endeavoured to create the impression that Poland was sacrificed by her Allies fruitlessly and that the efforts of the Polish Army contributed nothing to the contribution towards the final victory of her Allied was important, as the following points show:
- The Casualties inflicted by Poland on the Germany army were undoubtedly greater than speech. Even if German losses totalled only 150,000 casualties (a reasonable estimate), this represents a considerable wastage at the outset of what may be a long war.
- German losses in material also were considerable. In one attack alone they lost 83 tanks on a narrow front, and in Sosnkowski’s successful counter attack near Lwow on September 16th they are reported to have lost over 100 tanks. Losses of German aircraft were also appreciable; and German consumption of petrol – the weakest point in her supply system – was enormous.
- By holding about 70 German divisions on the Eastern Front the Polish Army enabled France to complete her mobilisation without disturbance.
- By compelling Germany to concentrate the bulk of her air force on the Eastern Front Poland contributed greatly to the safe transportation of the BEF to France.
- The Polish campaign had furnished the Allies with valuable information as to the tactics developed by Germany in the use of aircraft, tanks and motorized units.
- There is a reason to believe that the inability of German infantry to advance without tank support against even relatively weak Polish defensive positions came as a severe shock to German formations, who are aware that the Maginot Line is an infinitely more formidable proposition. The moral of German tanks personnel who also shaken by the effectiveness of even the very limited anti-tank artillery commanded by the Poles.
- Finally, the heroic defence of Warsaw, Modlin, etc. has given an example of the world of utmost gallantry in desperate circumstances. That example will stimulate the Allied forces in the West; and it has always been clear that the Poles’ eventual independence would have to be established by the victory of the Allies and not by the outcome of events on Polish soil.
Tuesday October 19th
Translation of French text of the ‘Treaty of Mutual Assistance’, signed in Ankara, between France, Great Britain and Turkey:
In the event of Turkey being involved in hostilities with a European Power in consequence of aggression by that Power against Turkey, of the United Kingdom will co-operate effectively with the Turkish Government and will lend it all aid and assistance in their power.
- In the event of an act of aggression by a European Power leading to war in the Mediterranean area in which the United Kingdom and France are involved. Turkey will collaborate effectively with France and the united Kingdom and will lend them all aid and assistance in its power.
- In the even of an act of aggression by a European Power leading to war in the Mediterranean area in which Turkey is involved, France and the United kingdom will collaborate effectively with Turkey and will lend it all aid and assistance in their power
So long as the guarantees given by France and the United kingdom to Greece and Rumania by their respective Declarations of April 13th, 1939, remain in force, Turkey will co-operate effectively with France and the United Kingdom and will lend them all aid and assistance in its power, in the event of France and the United Kingdom being engaged in hostilities in virtue of either of the said guarantees.
In the event of France and the United Kingdom being involved in hostilities with a European Power in consequence of aggression committed by that Power against either of those States without the provision of Articles 2 and 3 being applicable, the High Contracting Parties will immediately consult together.
It is nevertheless agreed that in such an eventuality Turkey will observe at least a benevolent neutrality towards France and the United Kingdom.
Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 3 above, int he event of either:
- Aggression by a European Power against another European States which the Government of one of the High Contracting Parties had, with the approval of that State, undertaken to assist in maintaining its independence of neutrality against such aggression, or
- Aggression by a European Power which, whilst directed against another European State, constituted, in the opinion of the Government of one of the High Contracting Parties, a menace to its own security,
the high Contracting Parties will immediately consult together with a view to such common action as might be considered effective.
The present Treaty is not directed against any country, but is designed to assure France, the United Kingdom, and Turkey of mutual aid and assistance in resistance to aggression should the necessity arise.
The Provisions of the present Treaty are equally binding as bilateral obligations between Turkey and each of the two other high Contracting Parties.
If the High Contracting Parties are engaged in hostilities in consequence of the operation of the present Treaty, they will not conclude an armistice or peace except by common agreement.
The present Treaty is concluded for a period of 15 years.
Protocol No 1
The undersigned Plenipotentiaries state that their respective Governments agree that the Treaty of Mutual Assistance dated this day shall be put into force from the moment of its signature.
Protocol No 2
The obligations undertaken by Turkey in virtue of the above-mentioned Treaty cannot compel that country to take action having as its effect, or involving as its consequence entry into armed conflict with the U.S.S.R.